i hope every one is well

TOEFL Essay Topic 76 - Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Children should begin learning a foreign language as soon as they start school. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position.

Author: ahmed | Date: December 1, 2007 | Score:3.5 | => 5 or 6 Essays, Click Here <=

i hope every one is well

To investigate the molecular ecology and diversity of fungi in acid organic upland soils in relation to their role in litter decomposition and nutrient cycling.

Microbial decomposition of organic material is the main process whereby nitrogen and other nutrients are released from organic matter into the soil nutrient pool. Most of these nutrients are essential to the growth and health of plants and other organisms, however, many soil types are nutrient limited.

In many instances, vast amounts of nutrients are tightly bound in organic matter and are thus unavailable to plants and other organisms for direct uptake and utilization. Indeed, this is the case for the majority of upland Scottish soils, which are characterized as being acidic organic soils with high levels of organic matter

While both bacteria and fungi have a role to play in the release of nutrients from organic matter, fungi are the principal degrading organisms in this process and are particularly important in upland acid organic soils. For fungi to have access to the nutrients bound in organic matter, they must have the ability to produce enzymes capable of degrading the tough cell wall components of plant material including cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin.

These enzymes including laccases, lignin peroxidases and manganese-dependant peroxidases are known to be produced by a number of fungal taxa which have subsequently been exploited in the biotechnology industries. In the context of the acidic organic soils of Scotland, however, little is known about the diversity of fungal species in these ecosystems and their role in lignin degradation and nutrient cycling.

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